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Medieval History of India



Classical era Of India (200 BCE – 1200 CE)

Shunga empire


By killing Brihadratha Maurya, Pushyamitra shunga became the emperor of shunga empire in 187 to 78 BCE. Pushyamitra shunga ruled for 36 years and there were 10 kings after shunga who handled shunga empire after him.

No Shunga Empire Kings Region
1 Pushyamitra shunga 185-149 BCE
2 Agnimitra 149-141 BCE
3 Vasujyeshtha 141-131 BCE
4 Vasumitra 131-124 BCE
5 Bhadraka 124-122 BCE
6 Pulindaka 122-119 BCE
7 Ghosha 119-108 BCE
8 Vajramitra 108-94 BCE
9 Bhagabhadra 94-83 BCE
10 Devabhuti 83-78 BCE

Evidence of Shunga Empire

shunga empire

shunga empire

In shunga empire , they made lots of stupa, this is the picture of one of the stupa which is old as 150BCE


Satavahana Empire (230 BCE-220 CE)

Satavahana empire is the empire of Dakkhan which is now known as Maharashtra state. Satavahana family is the reason for lots of developments in dakkhan. The main centers of dakkhan at that time are paithan and junnar. Pandavaleni which is at Nashik , said to be developed under satavahana empire donations.

At the time of Ashoka , Satavahana was the king of Andhra. Medieval  History  of India is written by magasthenis in the Book named “indica” mentioned about satavahana king. It is mentioned that satavahana has 1.1 million army and 1000 elephants. There were 30 kings in satavahana family and they ruled about 500 years on dakkhan and Andhra.

No Satavahana Kings
1 Simuk Satavahana
2 First Satavahana
3 Vedishri
4 Purnotstanga
5 Skandastambhi
6 Second satavahana
7 Lambodar
8 Apilak
9 Meghswati
10 Mrugendra
11 Kuntal
12 Swativarna
13 First pulumavi
14 Arishthakarna
15 Hal satavahana
16 Mantlak
17 Purindrasen
18 Sundar satkarni
19 Chakor
20 Shivswati
21 Gautamiputra satkarni
22 Vashishthiputra skandasatkarni
23 Gautamiputra yadnya satkarni
24 Mathriputra shaksen
25 Gautamiputra vijay satkarni
26 Sashithiputra chandraswati
27 Third pulumavi

Evidence of Satavahana Empire

satavahana empire

Satavahana Empire

It is at nasik , maharashtra , India. This cave is called as kanha cave cause it is made by king krishna whose hindi name is kanha. made in the dedication of sramana in 1st century BCE.


Kushan Empire (30 BCE-375 CE)

Kushan empire is mainly in Afghanistan. At the old age, huns have defeated them, this pushed them to the northern part of india. Kanishaka the great is the king of kushan empire.
He plays a great role in spreading Buddhism in China and India. Kanishka is also called as the second Ashoka.

Last emperor of kushan empire is Vasudeva I. Some of the remarkable kushan kings

No Kings Region
1 Kujula Kadphises 30-80 CE
2 Sadashkana 80-95 CE
3 Vima Kadphises 95-127 CE
4 Kanishka 127-140 CE
5 Vsishka 140-160 CE
6 Huvishka 160-190 CE
7 Vasudeva I 190-230 CE

Evidence of Kushan Empire

kushan empire

kushan empire

This offerings found in a bodh gaya which is at underneath of enlightenment throne of lord buddha. It is the coin of king kushan empire of 2nd century. it is now in the british musium.

Gupta Empire(240-550 CE)

Shrigupta is the first emperor of Gupta empire. It is being said that at this of era Gupta empire is the golden era of this era fields like science, technology, religion, maths, logic, literature and art became the powerful side of India.

NO Gupta Empire Kings Region
1 Shrigupta 240-290 CE
2 Ghatotkach 290-305 CE
3 First Chandra gupta 305-335 CE
4 Samudragupta 335-370 CE
5 Ramgupta 370-375 CE
6 Second Chandragupta 375-415 CE
7 First kumargupta 415-455 CE
8 Skandagupta 455-467 CE
9 Second kumargupta 467-477 CE
10 Buddhagupta 477-496 CE
11 Third Chandra gupta 496-500 CE
12 Vinaygupta 500-515 CE
13 Narsingh gupta 515-530 CE
14 Third kumargupta 530-540 CE
15 Vishnugupta 540-550 CE

Chandra Gupta’s family were expert in archery, which is strongly mentioned in China history too. The arrow of archery made by a strong piece of bamboo and front side is made of iron which is a very strong impacting weapon. Gupta family started building mandirs which represent their belief in Hindu spirituality. kalidas the great poet who is in the poet in second Chandragupta’s court. The great mathematician Aaryabhatta is also born in this era.

Evidence Of  Gupta Empire

gupta empirekamarupa kingdom

Gupta Empire

Pure gold coin ,kumara gupta holding a bow . it is mentioned that the kumaragupta is fighting with a lion using his bow.


Kamarupa Kingdom (350-1100 CE)

It is said that kamarupa is the name which is formed in the name of god Kamadeva who is the god of kama. This kingdom is located at Asam and divided by three dynasties.

Evidence of Kamarupa Kingdom

kamarupa kingdom

kamarupa Kingdom

This is just a copper plate seal of kamarupa kings

Varman dynasty (350-650 CE)

Pushyavarman established the varman dynasty, but his son samudravarman who is later known as sumudragupta after accepting Gupta empire.

Mlechchha dynasty (650-900 CE)

After the last king of varman dynasty bhaskaravarman’s death, his governer salasthamba established new dynasty named as mlechchha dynasty.It is now known as Tezpur.

Pala dynasty (900-1100 CE)

After the death of the last king of mlechchha dynasty, the great leader of bhauma family was elected as king. Pala kings ruled for nearly 200 years and the last pala king is jayapala (1075-1100 CE).

Pallava Dynasty (275-897 CE)

The name palava came from pallava king who is originally Hindu and his speaking language is Tamil. Most of the time in their dynastic period they had war with chalukya, cholas, kadambas and kalabhras. Pallava is better known for their firm constructions, they build lots of mandirs in India.

Kadamba Dynasty (345-525CE)

In the very less period, they build a huge amount of construction and respect. One of the pallava king insulted kadamba hence kadamba family who was bramhins at that time decided to rule in banavasi. The two impact kings mayursharma and Krishna Varma second established the base of kadamba.


Harsha empire (606-647CE)

It is established from the name of harshawardhan emperor. When he became king, his age was just 16 he ruled near about whole upper area of India which contains Jalandhar, Punjab, Kashmir, Nepal, and vallabhipura. He ruled about 41 years. Banbhatta, haridatta, and jaysen is the writer and poet in his court.

Evidence of Harsha Empire

harsha empire

harsha empire

It is the coin of king harshavardhana . on the left side it is the head of king harshavardhana and at the right side of the coin it is the garuda .


Chalukya Empire (500 & 1100 BCE)

Chalukya were the Kannada speakers and their main kings are pulkeshi, Vikramaditya, and kirtivarma. In the chalukya empire, their main centre is badami. In the area pattadakhal which is popularly known as raktapura (because of its red hills).

Evidence Of Chalukya Empire

chalukya empire

chalukya empire

Old Kannada inscription of Chalukya King Mangalesha dated 578 CE at Badami cave temple no.3

Rashtrakuta empire (753 – 982 BCE)

Ajintha and verul leni is made in the age of rashtrakuta empire. Here are some of the list of rashtrakuta empire kings.

NO Rashtrakuta kings Region
1 Dantidurga 735-756 CE
2 krushna 756-774 CE
3 Govinda 774-780 CE
4 Dhruva dharavarsh 780-793 CE
5 Govinda second 793-814 CE
6 Amoghvarsh 814-878 CE
7 Krushna third 878-914 CE
8 Indra 914-929 CE
9 Amoghvarsh second 929-930 CE
10 Govinda 930-936 CE
11 Amoghvarsha third 936-939 CE
12 Krushna 939-967 CE
13 Khottiga 967-972 CE
14 Karka second 972-973 CE
15 Indra forth 973-982 CE
16 Tailap second 973-997 CE

Evidence Of Rashtrakuta Empire

Rashtrakuta Empire

Rashtrakuta Empire

9th century Old Kannada inscription at Navalinga temple in Kuknur, Karnataka

Pala empire (750-1162 BCE)

It is the Buddhist dynasty and established by king Gopala. After Gopala there were two popular kings Dharmapala and devapala. They extended pala empire at its best. Dharmapala constructed vikramashila which was the first university of India. Nalanda University is constructed here in pala empire. Nalanda is one of the most developed universities of all the time.

NO Kings of Pala Empire Region
1 Gopala 750-770 CE
2 Dharmapala 770-810 CE
3 Devapala 810-850 CE
4 Mahendrapala NA
5 Shurapala 850-853 CE
6 Vigrahapala 850-853 CE
7 Narayanapala 854-908 CE
8 Rajyapala 908-940 CE
9 Gopala II 940-957 CE
10 Vigrahapala II 960-986 CE
11 Mahipala 988-1036 CE
12 Nayapala 1038-1053 CE
13 Vigrahapala III 1054-1072 CE
14 Mahipala II 1072-1075 CE
15 Shurapala 1075-1077 CE
16 Ramapala 1077-1130 CE
17 Kumarapala 1130-1125 CE
18 Gopala III 1140-1144 CE
19 Madanapala 1144-1162 CE
20 Govinda pala 1155-1159 CE
21 Pala pala NA

Evidence Of Pala Empire

pala empire

pala Empire

Left: with Lakshmi Narayana (Bangladesh or India’s West Bengal state), Pala period, 11th – 12th century Sheel with silver additions Middle: India, Pala period, ca. 11th century Shell Right: India, pala period, 11th century or earlier Shell.

Chola Empire (300BCE – 1279 CE)

This was India’s most long time ruled empire. The beginning of chola empire is started at kaveri river bank. The Two kings Raja Raja Chola And Rajendra Chola are listed one of the greatest kings in Medieval  history of india.They ruled in India Srilanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Malesia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Singapur, and the Maldives. Their mother tongue is Tamil, and the center of their empire is tanjavar.

NO Kings of Chola Empire (Middle Age) Region
1 Vijayalaya 848-891
2 Aditya I 891-907
3 Parantaka I 907-950
4 Gandaraditya 950-957
5 Arinjaya 956-956
6 Sundara 957-970
7 Uttama 970-985
8 Raja raja 985-1014
9 Rajendra I 1012-1044
10 Rajadhiraja 1044-1054
11 Rajendra II 1054-1063
12 VIrarajendra 1063-1070
13 Athirajendra 1070-1070
14 Kulothunga I 1070-1120
15 Vikrama I 1118-1135
16 Kulothunga II 1133-1150
17 Rajaraja II 1146-1173
18 Rajadhiraja II 1166-1178
19 Kulothunga III 1178-1218
20 Raja raja III 1216-1256
21 Rajendra III 1246-1279

Evidence Of Chola Empire

Chola Empire

Chola Empire

An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the tiger emblem of the Chola and in Nagari script


India After 1200


Western Chalukyas Empire (973-1189 CE)

These are the most ruled empire on dakkhan. After the Chalukyas who ruled in the 6th century, the Chalukyas were back at 10th to 12th century and they ruled on the western side of India this is why they are called western chalukya empire. The traditional architectural culture is the gift of western chalukya empire ,there are lots of evidence of this era. Since their mother tongue is Kannada, they lived in the river bank of Tungabhadra.

NO Kings of western Chalukya Region
1 Tailapa II 957-997 CE
2 Satyashraya 997-1008  CE
3 Vikramaditya V 1008-1015 CE
4 Jayasmiha II 1015-1042 CE
5 Someshwara I 1042-1068 CE
6 Someshwara II 1068-1076 CE
7 Vikramaditya VI 1076-1126 CE
8 Someshwara III 1126-1138 CE
9 Jagadhekamalla II 1138-1151 CE
10 Tailapa III 1151-1164 CE
11 Jagadhekamalla III 1163-1183 CE
12 Someshwara IV 1184-1200 CE

Evidence of Western Chalukyas Empire

Western CHalukyas Empire

western Chalukyas Empire

Mahadeva temple in Itagi, Koppal district, Karnataka state, India


Islamic movements

It is written in the book chach nama that, at the starting of 8th century Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Hindu king of Singh raja Dahir. Muhammad bin Qasim was an Arab Muslim who conquered Indus region which is now in Pakistan. Muslim traders came from an Arebian side in small numbers. Suhaldev of Sravasti is killed by ghazi saiyyad salar Masud. Ghaznavids are said to be Turkish which is established by sabuk tigin who was stated as a king after the death of his father in law. The son of sabuk tigin mahamud gaznabi expanded his kingdom to Indus river. After the defeat of Masud I In 1040 CE he only had Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Punjab.


Hindu Shahi

Hindu kings which were in the Kabul valley were declined from kushan empire. They divided into two eras which is hindu and Buddhist. The Hindu Shahis under jayapala were dominated by Ghaznavids.

The jayapala in his era has lost lots of war with ghazni. He gathered a huge force in Punjab and attacked once more on Ghazni empire but still, he was defeated by powerful Ghazni army.After all of this defeat jayapala committed suicide and his son anandpala succeeded after jayapala. He is also unable to dominate ghaznavids.


Rajput impact

NO Rajput Kings Region
1 Amar singh Rathore 1613-1644 CE
2 Dulla bhatti 1550-1599 CE
3 Durgadas rathore 1638-1718 CE
4 Ganga singh 1880-1943 CE
5 Gulab singh 1792-1857 CE
6 Hari singh 1895-1961 CE
7 Isa khan 1529-1599 CE
8 Jai singh I 1611-1667 CE
9 Jai singh II 1688-1743 CE
10 Jaswant singh 1629-1678 CE
11 Jodha 1416-1489 CE
12 Kunwar singh 1777-1858 CE
13 Pabuji 13th century
14 Pratap singh 1540-1597 CE
15 Prithvi Narayan shah 1723-1775 CE
16 Prithviraj Chauhan 1178-1192 CE
17 Raj bhoe Bhatti 14th century
18 Rai bular Bhatti 15th century
19 Rana sanga 1482-1528 CE
20 Rani padmini 13th century
21 Rana ratan singh 19th century
22 Ratnasimha 1302-1303 CE
23 Rawal jaisal 12th century
24 Shekha of amarsar 1433-1488 CE
25 Udai singh II 1522-1572 CE
26 Vanaraja chavda 746-780 CE
27 Zorawar singh kahluria 1786-1842 CE




Vijaynagar Empire(1336-1646)

Vijaynagara Empire

Vijaynagara Empire

It is established by king harihara in 1336 and ended in 1646.  In this big period they had 4 dynasty sanagama dynasty ,saluva dynasty , tuluva dynasty, and arvidu dynasty. Center of vijaynagar empire was Humpi. They are total 5 brothers , maharashtra was conqured by harihara, second brother was kampa who is ruling udayagiri, third brother bukka had halebid and the forth brother is  ruling Arag state and fifth brother was the precedent of the bukka king army.

Sanagama Dynasty

NO Sanagama Dynasty Kings Region
1 Harihara I 1336-1356
2 Bukka Raya I 1356-1377
3 Harihara raya II 1377-1404
4 Virupaksha raya 1404-1405
5 Bukka raya II 1405-1406
6 Deva raya I 1406-1422
7 Ramchandra raya 1422
8 Vira vijaya bukka raya 1422-1424
9 Deva raya II 1424-1446
10 Mallikarjuna raya 1446-1465
11 Virupaksha raya II 1468-1485
12 Praudha raya 1485


Saluva Dynasty

No Saluva Dynasty Kings Regions
1 Saluva narsimha deva raya 1485-1491
2 Thimma bhupala 1491
3 Narsimha raya II 1491-1505


Tuluva Dynasty

No Tuluva Dynasty Kings Regions
1 Tuluva narasa nayaka 1491-1503
2 Vira narsimha raya 1503-1509
3 Krishna deva raya 1509-1529
4 Acyuta deva raya 1529-1542
5 Venkata I 1542
6 Sadasiva raya 1542-1570

Arvidu Dynasty

No Arvidu dynasty Kings Region
1 Aliya rama raya 1542-1565
2 Tirumala deva raya 1565-1572
3 Sriranga I 1572-1586
4 Venkata II 1586-1614
5 Sriranga II 1614
6 Rama Deva Raya 1617-1632
7 Venkata III 1632-1642
8 Sriranga III 1642-1646


Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire Babur

Mughal Empire Babur

It is established by Babur in 16th century. His son humayun lost all of babur’s empire in the war with shershah suri. Humayun has been in the jail for 14 years. but after that he was successfull to take empire back from shershah suri. At the age of akbar the mughal empire was on its peak ,they conqure baluchistan and nepal. After the death of aurangzeb in 1707 mughal empire is declined and lost its all powers. In the year 1857 british took over mughal empire and established british empire all over india.

NO Ruler of Mughal Empire Region birth-death
1 Babur 1526-1530 1483-1530
2 Humayun 1530-1540 1508-1556
3 Akbar 1556-1606 1542-1605
4 Jahangir 1606-1627 1569-1627
5 Shahjahan 1627-1658 1592-1666
6 Alamgir –I (Aurangzeb) 1658-1707 1618-1707
7 Bahadur shah 1708-1712 1643-1712
8 Jahandar shah 1712-1713 1661-1713
9 Farrukhsiyar 1713-1719 1685-1719
10 Rafi –ud- darajat 1719(90 days) 1699-1719
11 Shah jahan II 1719-1719 1696-1719
12 Muhammad shah 1719-1748 1702-1748
13 Ahmad shah bahadur 1748-1754 1725-1775
14 Alamgir II 1754-1759 1699-1759
15 Shah jahan III 1759-1860 1711-1772
16 Shah alam II 1759-1806 1728-1806
17 Akbar shah II 1806-1837 1760-1837
18 Bahadur shah II 1837-1857 1775-1862


Maratha Empire

Maratha Empire Shivaji Maharaj

Maratha Empire Shivaji Maharaj

Maratha Empire is established by Shivaji Maharaj . Shivaji Maharaj is known as one of the great and smart king of all over the world. The term maharaj means king of the king. After him Sambhaji Maharaj was the second chattrapati of maratha Empire. In this era mughal emperor Aurangzeb was the king of mughal empire , he was the biggest enymy of shivaji maharah and sambhaji maharaj. But, fortunately aurangzeb cant able to even damage maratha empire. Aurangzeb’s dream of conquer maratha empire remained dream. After the death of aurangzeb mughal empire declined. maratha empire kings handled by peshwas till 1818.

NO Maratha Empire Kings   Region
1 Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj 1674-1680
2 Chattrapati Sambhaji Maharaj 1681-1689
3 Chattrapati Rajaram Maharaj 1689-1700
4 Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj 1708-1749
5 Rajaram II 1749-1777
6 Shahu II 1777-1808
7 Tarabai 1700-1708
8 Shivaji II 1700-1710
9 Sambhaji II 1714-1760
10 Shivaji III 1760-1812


Peshwa Region

Peshwa Bajirao

Peshwa Bajirao

No Peshwa Warriors Region
1 Balaji Vishwanath 1713-1720
2 Bajirao Peshwa I 1720-1740
3 Balaji Bajirao 1740-1761
4 Madhav Rao I 1761-1772
5 Narayan Rao 1772-1773
6 Raghunath Rao 1773-1774
7 Madhav Rao II 1774-1796
8 Bajirao II 1796-1818
9 Nana Saheb 1851-1857

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