आज हम बात करेंगे येसाजी कंक के बारे में। जिनके सामने महाकाय हाथी भी पराजीत हुआ, ऐसे शिवाजी महाराज के मावले।
“स्वराज्य निर्माण क्यों करे?” इस सोच से लेके आखरी साँस तक, छत्रपती शिवाजी महाराज के आदेश पर अपनी जान हतेली पे रख, स्वराज्य की सेवा में अपना योगदान करनेवाले मराठाओं में से एक थे – शूरवीर मराठा ” येसाजी कंक “!
स्वराज्य निर्माण के कार्य में उन्होंने बहुत सी लड़ाईया लढी। उनके इस काम का कोई तोड़ नहीं है। जो भी लड़ाई सामने आई, उसमे वह साहस से लड़कर शत्रु को मुहतोड़ जवाब देते और हर लड़ाई जितने के बाद ही लौटते।
छत्रपती संभाजी महाराज के शासनकाल में भी लेने जाने वाले वीर मराठो में एक नाम येसाजी कंक यह भी है। उनके वीरता के चर्चे इतिहास में कई जगह है। जब स्वराज्य के इतिहास की बात आती है तो येसाजी कंक का उल्लेख किया जाता है।
येसाजी कंक के बारे में एक और खास बात है की वह मजबूत और हाथी जैसे शरीर के थे। उनमे १०० हाथीओं जैसी ताकद थी, उनका सामर्थ्य असामान्य था। शिवाजी महाराज का उनके शक्ति पे कितना विश्वास था यह बात बतानेवाला एक किस्सा है, जो आज हम आपको बतानेवाले है।
१६७६ में राज्याभिषेक समारोह के बाद, शिवाजी महाराज दक्षिण पर कब्ज़ा करने के लिए आगे बढे। आदिलशाही का प्रबंधन करने के लिए कुतुबशाह को अपने साथ ले गए। इसी कारण कुतुबशाह को मिलने वह भागानगरी गए। तब उनके साथ उनके कुछ विश्वासु, वफादार और करीबी लोग थे। इन सब में येसाजी कंक भी शामिल थे।
जब शिवाजी महाराज ने दादामहल में प्रवेश किया, तो कुतुबशाह ने खुद आगे आकर उनका स्वागत किया। जब महाराज महल में आकर बैठे तब कुतुबशाह ने उन्हें एक सवाल पूछा, जो कई बार उनके मन में आया था।
“राजे, आपकी सेना बहुत बड़ी है, लेकिन इसमें हाथी क्यों नहीं है? “
महाराज ने कहा, “तानाशाहजी ऐसा कुछ नहीं है, हमारे पास ५०००० हाथी है। यानी एक एक सिपाही एक एक हाथी के समान है। यदि आप विश्वास नहीं करते है, तो आप हमारे सेना में से किसी को भी चुन सकते है। वह आदमी आपकी सेना के किसी भी हाथी के साथ लड़ेगा।”
महाराज के इस उत्तर को सुन कुतुबशाह स्तब्ध रह गया। लेकिन उन्हें अभी भी विश्वास न था, की कोई हाथी से मुकाबला कर सकता है? इसलिए उन्होंने महाराज के सेना के लोगों को आजमाने का फैसले किया।
उसने राजा के चारों ओर खड़े लोगों को देखा। येसाजी कंक जैसे मजबूत शरीर वाले इंसान पर कुतुबशाह की नजर रुक गयी। उन्होंने येसाजी को हाथी से मुकाबला करने के लिए चुन लिया। येसाजी ने इस चुनौती को स्वीकार किया और मुकाबले का दिन तय हुआ।
शिवाजी महाराज ने उनके अकेले में देखा और महाराज को येसाजी कंक के निडरता का प्रतिक उनकी आँखों में दिखाई दिया। कंक ने भी अपनी गर्दन घुमाई और महाराज को शपथ दिलाई,
“आप यह सुनिश्चित करे की जित हमारी होगी। “
हाथी और येसाजी के मुकाबले के लिए बैठक की व्यवस्था की गई और आखिरकार वह क्षण आ गया।
येसाजी ने मैदान में उतरने से पहले महाराज के आशीर्वाद लिए। उन्होंने अपने साथ २ तलवारे ली और बड़े ही आत्मविश्वास से मैदान में उतरे। कुतुबशाह के कहने पर उनके सैनिकों ने हाथी को पिछलेवाले रस्ते से मैदान में लाया। वह हाथी श्रृंखला में बंधा था, और उसे प्रबंधन करने के लिए लगभग २५ सैनिक थे। तो सोचिये की वह हाथी कितना शक्तिशाली था…!!
उन सैनिको ने हाथी को श्रृंखला से मुक्त किया। सामने येसाजी कंक को देख हाथी ज्यादा ही गुस्से में आकर उनपर आक्रमण करने आया। गुस्से में हाथी येसाजी पर आक्रमण करने आते ही येसाजी एक ओर भागे, जैसे उन्हें पहले से ही पता था उसकी चाल का।
वहाँ इकट्ठे हुए लोग तो जैसे अपनी जान हतेली पर रख यह मुकाबला देख रहे थे। यहाँ ऐसा सुनिश्चित था की हाथी और इंसान का यह मुकाबला हाथी ही जीतेगा।
हाथी आक्रमण करते ही येसाजी दूसरी ओर जाते, ऐसा येसाजी कंक कुछ वक्त तक करते रहे। इस बात से हाथी और भी गुस्से में आकर आक्रमण करने लगा। येसाजी तो हाथी के साथ एक खिलौंने की तरह खेल रहे थे, और हाथी खेल रहा था। कुछ वक्त ऐसा ही चला।
आखिरकार हाथी थक गया और उसकी आक्रमकता काम हो गयी। येसाजी एक मौके का इंतजार कर रहे थे। इस बार उन्होने हाथी पर आक्रमण किया।
अब की बार सह्याद्री के सान्निध्य में, मिटटी की कड़ी म्हणत हाथी पर भारी पड़ी।
येसाजी ने खुद को हाथी के जाल में फसा लिया। हाथी के सूँड में वह फसने लगे थे, उस समय उन्होंने अपनी पूरी ताकद को इकट्ठा किया। उन्होंने एक तरफ से अपनी तलवार निकाली और हाथी सूँड पर वार किया। और उसे घायल कर दिया। देखने वाले लोग बस देखते ही रह गए।
कुतुबशाह तो बस मुँह में ऊँगली डालना बाकी था। येसाजी का यह घाव तो आखरी घाव था। इससे डरकर हाथी भाग ही गया और वापस लौटा ही नहीं। यह मुकाबला सिर्फ एक आदमी और हाथी न था। इस में किसी आदमी का जितना संभव ही नहीं था। वह तो सिर्फ येसाजी कंक जैसे शूरवीर के लिए ही संभव है।
हर जगह तो बस उनका जयघोष हो रहा था। उन्होंने लोगों को अभिवादन किया। इस बिच उनकी नजर महाराज पर पड़ी, और ऑंखें उनपर ही टिक गई। उनका सीना गर्व से चौड़ा हुआ, की उन्हें महाराज की आँखों में उनके लिए अभिमान दिखाई दिया, जो उनके लिए सबसे मूल्यवान था।
आज भी येसाजी कंक जी के वंशज भुतोंडे गाव, तालुका भोर, पुणे यहा रहते है। सिद्धार्थ कंक यह येसाजी कंक जी के थेट वंशज है।
येसाजी और उनके जैसे कई अनेक योद्धाओं के कारन स्वराज्य में सरे लोग निश्चिन्त थे। हम खुशकिस्मत है की इनके जैसे वीर योद्धा हमारे स्वराज्य को मिले।
हम बाते करगें हुतात्मा चौक के बारे मे ।आज जिसे हुतात्मा चौक के नाम से जाना जाता है, उसका पुराना नाम फ्लोरा फाउंटन था।
क्या आप जानते है, फ्लोरा फाउंटन को हुतात्मा चौक यह नाम कैसे मिला?
हुतात्मा चौक यह मुंबई फोर्ट क्षेत्र का एक ऐतिहासिक चौक है, जिसका पुराना नाम फ्लोरा फाउंटन है। उसके पास ही दादाभाई नौरोजी मूर्ति, हुतात्मा स्मारक और फ्लोरा फाउंटन यह स्मृतीया दर्शाती हुई वास्तुयें है।
मुंबई, गुज़रात और महाराष्ट्र यह १९५६ के स्वतंत्र राज्य थे। मुंबई को भारत की आर्थिक राजधानी इस नाम से जाना जाता है।
मुंबई जैसे आर्थिक दृष्टी से बड़े राज्य को अपने राज्य में शामिल क्र अपने राज्य को बड़ा बनाना की गुजरात की चाह थी। और यह बात कांग्रेस सरकार द्वारा की जानेवाली थी।मुंबई के मुख्यमंत्री मोरारजी देसाई इनका भी यही कहना था, पर मुंबई के लोग इस बात से सहमत नहीं थे।मुंबई के ज्यादातर लोग मराठी भाषा के थे। इसलिए मुंबई को महाराष्ट्र शामिल करने के लिए मुंबई के लोगों ने आंदोलन किया।
२१ नव्हंबर १९५६ को सुबह से ही कुछ तनाव भरा माहौल था। राज्य की पुनर्रचना करने वाले आयोग ने मुंबई को महाराष्ट्र में सम्मलित करने से मन क्र दिया, इससे पूरी मुंबई के लोगों में गुस्से का माहौल था।
उन्होंने इस बात का निषेध हर जगह दर्शाया। वहाँ काम करने वाले लोग एक हुए और उन्होंने आंदोलन किया वह भी सफ़ेद कपडों में। यह लोग फ़्लोरा फाउंटन के सामने जमा होने वाले थे।
शाम के ४ बजने के बाद सरे कारखानों से निकल के यह लोग फ़्लोरा फाउंटन के सामने आकर निषेध करने वाले है, ऐसा पुलिस को पता चला। एक ओर सीएसटी से और दूसरी ओर बोरीबंदर से लोग आह रहे थे। वह भी सफ़ेद कपड़ो में जोर से जोर घोषणाएं देते हुए।बिना पुलिस की चिंता किए लोग आते जा रहे थे, जब की ऐसा लग था की पुलिस वजह से लोग नहीं आएंगे। वह के महिला वर्ग को पहले ही घर भेजा गया था।बिना किसी पुलिस दबाव के लोग आते जा रहे थे।
और फ़्लोरा फाउंटन के सामने लोग आंदोलन करने बैठ गए , और कुछ समय बाद विपरीत घटा।
लोगों पर लाठिया बरसाई आंदोलन ख़त्म करने के लिए, पर फिर भी लोग पीछे न हटे।तो पुलिस को गोलियां चलाने का आदेश मिला। मुंबई के मुख्यमंत्री मोरारजी देसाई इन्होने देखते ही गोली चलाने का आदेश दिया। जैसे की फ़्लोरा फाउंटन के पानी को सड़को पे बहता देखा जाता है, वैसे ही प्रदर्शनकारियों के रक्त का प्रवाह उन सड़को पर बहता देखा गया।
इस आंदोलन में साल १९५७ के जनवरी तक १०५ हुतात्मा शहीद हुए, पर कई लोगों का कहना है की १०६ हुतात्मा शहीद हुए थे।
सारे हुतात्मा और मराठों के सामने कांग्रेस सरकार को भी झुकना पड़ा। और आखिर में १ मई १९६० को मुंबई के साथ संयुक्त महाराष्ट्र की स्थापना की नीव राखी गयी। इसके बाद १९६५ में उस जगह हुतात्मा स्मारक की स्थापना हुई।
महाराष्ट्र की लड़ाई में अपने शहीदों को याद दिलाने के लिए, इस चौक का नाम हुतात्मा चौक रखा गया। किसान और कार्यकर्ता ने हात में पकड़ी मशाल की प्रतिमा को चौक में खड़ा कर दिया।
आज भी उस काली सड़को पे उन १०६ हुतात्माओं का खून और उनके लिए आँसू, मुंबई के लोगों के सूखे नहीं है।
दुनिया में बहुत से आंदोलन हुए, और बहुत से लोगों इनमे अपनी जान खो दी। पर आज भी उन हुतात्माओं के परिवार का दुःख कम न हो सका।
क्या हम १ मई को इन हुतात्माओं के बलिदान को इतनी श्रद्धा से याद करते है।
इस घटना पे एक मराठी नाटक भी बनाया गया है , उसका नाम है, ” गोरेगाव वाया दादर “।
By killing Brihadratha Maurya, Pushyamitra shunga became the emperor of shunga empire in 187 to 78 BCE. Pushyamitra shunga ruled for 36 years and there were 10 kings after shunga who handled shunga empire after him.
Shunga Empire Kings
Evidence of Shunga Empire
In shunga empire , they made lots of stupa, this is the picture of one of the stupa which is old as 150BCE
Satavahana Empire (230 BCE-220 CE)
Satavahana empire is the empire of Dakkhan which is now known as Maharashtra state. Satavahana family is the reason for lots of developments in dakkhan. The main centers of dakkhan at that time are paithan and junnar. Pandavaleni which is at Nashik , said to be developed under satavahana empire donations.
At the time of Ashoka , Satavahana was the king of Andhra. Medieval History of India is written by magasthenis in the Book named “indica” mentioned about satavahana king. It is mentioned that satavahana has 1.1 million army and 1000 elephants. There were 30 kings in satavahana family and they ruled about 500 years on dakkhan and Andhra.
Gautamiputra yadnya satkarni
Gautamiputra vijay satkarni
Evidence of Satavahana Empire
It is at nasik , maharashtra , India. This cave is called as kanha cave cause it is made by king krishna whose hindi name is kanha. made in the dedication of sramana in 1st century BCE.
Kushan Empire (30 BCE-375 CE)
Kushan empire is mainly in Afghanistan. At the old age, huns have defeated them, this pushed them to the northern part of india. Kanishaka the great is the king of kushan empire.
He plays a great role in spreading Buddhism in China and India. Kanishka is also called as the second Ashoka.
Last emperor of kushan empire is Vasudeva I. Some of the remarkable kushan kings
Evidence of Kushan Empire
This offerings found in a bodh gaya which is at underneath of enlightenment throne of lord buddha. It is the coin of king kushan empire of 2nd century. it is now in the british musium.
Gupta Empire(240-550 CE)
Shrigupta is the first emperor of Gupta empire. It is being said that at this of era Gupta empire is the golden era of India.in this era fields like science, technology, religion, maths, logic, literature and art became the powerful side of India.
Gupta Empire Kings
First Chandra gupta
Third Chandra gupta
Chandra Gupta’s family were expert in archery, which is strongly mentioned in China history too. The arrow of archery made by a strong piece of bamboo and front side is made of iron which is a very strong impacting weapon. Gupta family started building mandirs which represent their belief in Hindu spirituality. kalidas the great poet who is in the poet in second Chandragupta’s court. The great mathematician Aaryabhatta is also born in this era.
Evidence Of Gupta Empire
Pure gold coin ,kumara gupta holding a bow . it is mentioned that the kumaragupta is fighting with a lion using his bow.
Kamarupa Kingdom (350-1100 CE)
It is said that kamarupa is the name which is formed in the name of god Kamadeva who is the god of kama. This kingdom is located at Asam and divided by three dynasties.
Evidence of Kamarupa Kingdom
This is just a copper plate seal of kamarupa kings
Varman dynasty (350-650 CE)
Pushyavarman established the varman dynasty, but his son samudravarman who is later known as sumudragupta after accepting Gupta empire.
Mlechchha dynasty (650-900 CE)
After the last king of varman dynasty bhaskaravarman’s death, his governer salasthamba established new dynasty named as mlechchha dynasty.It is now known as Tezpur.
Pala dynasty (900-1100 CE)
After the death of the last king of mlechchha dynasty, the great leader of bhauma family was elected as king. Pala kings ruled for nearly 200 years and the last pala king is jayapala (1075-1100 CE).
Pallava Dynasty (275-897 CE)
The name palava came from pallava king who is originally Hindu and his speaking language is Tamil. Most of the time in their dynastic period they had war with chalukya, cholas, kadambas and kalabhras. Pallava is better known for their firm constructions, they build lots of mandirs in India.
Kadamba Dynasty (345-525CE)
In the very less period, they build a huge amount of construction and respect. One of the pallava king insulted kadamba hence kadamba family who was bramhins at that time decided to rule in banavasi. The two impact kings mayursharma and Krishna Varma second established the base of kadamba.
Harsha empire (606-647CE)
It is established from the name of harshawardhan emperor. When he became king, his age was just 16 he ruled near about whole upper area of India which contains Jalandhar, Punjab, Kashmir, Nepal, and vallabhipura. He ruled about 41 years. Banbhatta, haridatta, and jaysen is the writer and poet in his court.
Evidence of Harsha Empire
It is the coin of king harshavardhana . on the left side it is the head of king harshavardhana and at the right side of the coin it is the garuda .
Chalukya Empire (500 & 1100 BCE)
Chalukya were the Kannada speakers and their main kings are pulkeshi, Vikramaditya, and kirtivarma. In the chalukya empire, their main centre is badami. In the area pattadakhal which is popularly known as raktapura (because of its red hills).
Evidence Of Chalukya Empire
Old Kannada inscription of Chalukya King Mangalesha dated 578 CE at Badami cave temple no.3
Rashtrakuta empire (753 – 982 BCE)
Ajintha and verul leni is made in the age of rashtrakuta empire. Here are some of the list of rashtrakuta empire kings.
Evidence Of Rashtrakuta Empire
9th century Old Kannada inscription at Navalinga temple in Kuknur, Karnataka
Pala empire (750-1162 BCE)
It is the Buddhist dynasty and established by king Gopala. After Gopala there were two popular kings Dharmapala and devapala. They extended pala empire at its best. Dharmapala constructed vikramashila which was the first university of India. Nalanda University is constructed here in pala empire. Nalanda is one of the most developed universities of all the time.
Kings of Pala Empire
Evidence Of Pala Empire
Left: with Lakshmi Narayana (Bangladesh or India’s West Bengal state), Pala period, 11th – 12th century Sheel with silver additions Middle: India, Pala period, ca. 11th century Shell Right: India, pala period, 11th century or earlier Shell.
Chola Empire (300BCE – 1279 CE)
This was India’s most long time ruled empire. The beginning of chola empire is started at kaveri river bank. The Two kings Raja Raja Chola And Rajendra Chola are listed one of the greatest kings in Medieval history of india.They ruled in India Srilanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Malesia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Singapur, and the Maldives. Their mother tongue is Tamil, and the center of their empire is tanjavar.
Kings of Chola Empire (Middle Age)
Raja raja III
Evidence Of Chola Empire
An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the tiger emblem of the Chola and in Nagari script
India After 1200
Western Chalukyas Empire (973-1189 CE)
These are the most ruled empire on dakkhan. After the Chalukyas who ruled in the 6th century, the Chalukyas were back at 10th to 12th century and they ruled on the western side of India this is why they are called western chalukya empire. The traditional architectural culture is the gift of western chalukya empire ,there are lots of evidence of this era. Since their mother tongue is Kannada, they lived in the river bank of Tungabhadra.
Kings of western Chalukya
Evidence of Western Chalukyas Empire
western Chalukyas Empire
Mahadeva temple in Itagi, Koppal district, Karnataka state, India
It is written in the book chach nama that, at the starting of 8th century Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Hindu king of Singh raja Dahir. Muhammad bin Qasim was an Arab Muslim who conquered Indus region which is now in Pakistan. Muslim traders came from an Arebian side in small numbers. Suhaldev of Sravasti is killed by ghazi saiyyad salar Masud. Ghaznavids are said to be Turkish which is established by sabuk tigin who was stated as a king after the death of his father in law. The son of sabuk tigin mahamud gaznabi expanded his kingdom to Indus river. After the defeat of Masud I In 1040 CE he only had Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Punjab.
Hindu kings which were in the Kabul valley were declined from kushan empire. They divided into two eras which is hindu and Buddhist. The Hindu Shahis under jayapala were dominated by Ghaznavids.
The jayapala in his era has lost lots of war with ghazni. He gathered a huge force in Punjab and attacked once more on Ghazni empire but still, he was defeated by powerful Ghazni army.After all of this defeat jayapala committed suicide and his son anandpala succeeded after jayapala. He is also unable to dominate ghaznavids.
Amar singh Rathore
Jai singh I
Jai singh II
Prithvi Narayan shah
Raj bhoe Bhatti
Rai bular Bhatti
Rana ratan singh
Shekha of amarsar
Udai singh II
Zorawar singh kahluria
It is established by king harihara in 1336 and ended in 1646. In this big period they had 4 dynasty sanagama dynasty ,saluva dynasty , tuluva dynasty, and arvidu dynasty. Center of vijaynagar empire was Humpi. They are total 5 brothers , maharashtra was conqured by harihara, second brother was kampa who is ruling udayagiri, third brother bukka had halebid and the forth brother is ruling Arag state and fifth brother was the precedent of the bukka king army.
Sanagama Dynasty Kings
Bukka Raya I
Harihara raya II
Bukka raya II
Deva raya I
Vira vijaya bukka raya
Deva raya II
Virupaksha raya II
Saluva Dynasty Kings
Saluva narsimha deva raya
Narsimha raya II
Tuluva Dynasty Kings
Tuluva narasa nayaka
Vira narsimha raya
Krishna deva raya
Acyuta deva raya
Arvidu dynasty Kings
Aliya rama raya
Tirumala deva raya
Rama Deva Raya
Mughal Empire Babur
It is established by Babur in 16th century. His son humayun lost all of babur’s empire in the war with shershah suri. Humayun has been in the jail for 14 years. but after that he was successfull to take empire back from shershah suri. At the age of akbar the mughal empire was on its peak ,they conqure baluchistan and nepal. After the death of aurangzeb in 1707 mughal empire is declined and lost its all powers. In the year 1857 british took over mughal empire and established british empire all over india.
Ruler of Mughal Empire
Alamgir –I (Aurangzeb)
Rafi –ud- darajat
Shah jahan II
Ahmad shah bahadur
Shah jahan III
Shah alam II
Akbar shah II
Bahadur shah II
Maratha Empire Shivaji Maharaj
Maratha Empire is established by Shivaji Maharaj . Shivaji Maharaj is known as one of the great and smart king of all over the world. The term maharaj means king of the king. After him Sambhaji Maharaj was the second chattrapati of maratha Empire. In this era mughal emperor Aurangzeb was the king of mughal empire , he was the biggest enymy of shivaji maharah and sambhaji maharaj. But, fortunately aurangzeb cant able to even damage maratha empire. Aurangzeb’s dream of conquer maratha empire remained dream. After the death of aurangzeb mughal empire declined. maratha empire kings handled by peshwas till 1818.
Maratha Empire Kings
Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Chattrapati Sambhaji Maharaj
Chattrapati Rajaram Maharaj
Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj
Bajirao Peshwa I
Madhav Rao I
Madhav Rao II
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Now before moving forward lets find out, how do British came to India and made their firm foothold. Historical documentary shows the presence of East India Company from 1612. They came in India for just trading of goods.
Battle of Plassey (1757)
battle of plassy
Exact 100 years before 1857 sepoy munity, East India company Had a war with Nawab of bengal, which are having support of french army. Actually this war is the indirect war between french and british . french and british had war 1756 to 1763, due to this war french sends a troops to defeat british and support nawab of bengal. french seek help of siral ud daula to defeat british , because siral ud duala had comparitively larger army than East India Company. Mir jafar who is the ex soldier in siraj ud daula helped east india company to defeat nawab of bengal. Siraj ud daula was killed in the war and mir jafar was made nawab by british, as now they have the control over bengal. This is the first large victory of east india company in India.
Battle of Buxar (1764)
battle of buxar
This battle is between East India company and nawab of awadh, Nawab of Bengal and Mughal empire. After the huge victory in the battle of Plassey mir, Jafar was made a Nawab of Bengal. Due to the heavy loss of treasure and sudden death of his son, Mir Jafar was now no use of British. mir Jafar is unsuccessful to fulfill east India company’s requirements. Mir Qasim who is the son in law of Mir Jafar is made a Nawab of Bengal by East India company. The smartness of mir Qasim shined in the eyes of East India company, hence they decided to take on Bengal. mir Qasim seeks the help of Nawab of awadh who is stronger in that era. In 1964 mir Qasim had a deal with awadh , shah alam also joined their group and had a war with East India company. Due to the doubtful nature of each other in awadh, Mir Qasim and shah Alam , east India company managed to win this battle too.
anglo mysore war
First Anglo-Mysore war happened between 1767-1769. In this era, there is only one expert warrior whose name is Haidar ali. He was just a soldier who is picked up by his king and made ahead of an army in very young age. Due to his excellence, he became the strong power in Mysore. In 1766 when Haider Ali was busy in the war with Maratha, British did handshake with nijam to conquer Mysore. haider ali got angry by the sudden interference of British and did a handshake with nijams and fought with east India company. During the war due to a sudden loss of nizam’s support Haider Ali had a treaty with British
second Anglo-Mysore war started in 1769. In the previous treaty, east India company promised Haider ali to help him in war. but when Peshwa Madhav Rao attacked him east India company had a handshake with nijam and Maratha. This thing made Haider ali more angry about British and he gathered 80000 soldiers with guns in the ground of Karnataka and defeated east India company. Newly appointed governor-general waren hestings succeeded to divide 80000 Haider ali troops and finally defeated Haider ali. Due to heavy loss haider, ali died in 1782, but his son tipu sultan carried on war and gave a tough fight to east India company. In the 1784 tipu sultan did treaty with British.
anglo maratha war
There are 3 wars between Maratha and British. The first war started in 1775 and ended in 1782. This war happened due to the Raghunath Rao Peshwa who had a treaty with East India company . in the value of 1 lakh rupees, Raghunath Rao will have 2500 British troops, who will fight against the Maratha empire and will make Raghunath Rao Peshwa.
The second war is started in the 1803 and ended in 1816. During this period second bajirao II had a treaty with east india company. british divided the group of Maratha family which are Holkar, Bhosle and mahadji shinde.
The third war started in the 1817 and ended in 1819. At last due to the decreasing power of Maratha and division of all families, Peshwa lost the war and British firmly started their empire.
Anglo-sikh war (1849)
anglo sikh war
there were two battles between East India company and Sikh. the first battle was in 1849 and this battle is so insane that, both sides were confident about their victory.
the second war 21st Feb 1849 at Gujrat. In this battle, Sikh lost very badly because east India company spread the myth about Ranjit Singh that he his no more alive. This myth spread in the battlefield like fire and Sikh army surrendered.
anglow nepalese war
In the British – Nepal war from the 17th century the domination of Nepalese kings war stronger on east India company. In the 18 th century that is at 1814, Nepalese gave a strong fight to east India company. Amar singh thapa, balbhadra Kumar and 72 years old bhakti thapa showed a great bravery. nepalese lost this battle with east India company and in the treaty, they gave their one-third area to east India company.
Causes of 1857 Rebellion
Before the rebellion there were 50000 British army and 300000 Indian army, Indian troops are considered as low-level troops.
the salary of Indian troops are lesser than british troops.
there were 3 divisions of this army Bengal, Bombay and madras. these forces are more divided from their cast. Bengal army consists of high caste troops and Bombay and madras army consist of more localized troops.
due to the high caste troops in Bengal they did a munity with East India Company.
the Bengal army paid less by east India company than Bombay and Madras army.
the cartridge which is used in the gun and it should be bitten at every time while refilling the gun. That cartridge was made of pig and cow fat to soften that.
this leads to the reason behind Indian army’s anger. the cow is very respected in Hindu region and the pig is supposed to unclean in the muslim region. the hindu and Muslim army did munity with east India company.
This all Started with Mangal Pandey who attacked British sergeant. By this British army felt insecure and governer ordered an Indian soldier to arrest Mangal Pandey, but he refused. Mangal Pandey was arrested by British and killed both of them by hanging.
10th may 1857- The third regiment freed from British army and all Indian soldier came together by forgetting their castes and regions. They all headed to Delhi fort, where the Bahadur shah II (last mughal emperor ) was living. Army told bahadur shah II to become their leader, bahadur shah agreed unwillingly. This leads all over india’s great leaders started a battle with east India company.
Ahmed Ulla(advisor of the king of awadh), nanasaheb and raosaheb, tatya tope, azimullah khan, the queen of jhashi, kunwar singh(rajput of jagadishpur,bihar),firuz saha(relative of bahadur shah II).
british imported huge amount of British army from Crimean war and China to India. massacre at Kanpur and siege of Lucknow is the biggest evidence of 1857 rebellion. There is a huge battle between the queen of Jhansi and east India company. british somehow managed to defeat Jhansi. This battle is also known as the battle of Gwalior. The fire drops of this rebellion remained till 1859 but after captureing tatya tope and execution of him silents india for a long time.
Timeline Of 1857 Rebellion
jhasi ki rani
11th may 1857- The start of munity in Delhi, Ferozepur, Bombay, Aligarh, Manipuri, nasrabad, Bareilly, Moradabad, shahjahanpur. death of the general Anson.
June 1857 – munities at jhansi, sitapur, azamgarh, gorakhpur followed by the siege of europeans and massacre.
july 1857 – the siege of lucknow.
August 1857 – muntinies at kolhapur, madras, lahore.
september 1857- the siege of saugor begins, delhi captured by British.
october 1857- mutiny near bombay(15th oct)
november 1857- Defeat of general Windham outside of Kanpur.
January 1858 – Central India Campaign begins.
february 1858 – General rose relieves Saugor.
March 1858- Lucknow is recaptured by British on 21st March.
April 1858- Battle of Betwa.
May 1858- Battle of Bareilly.
June – Tatya Tope and Rani of Jhansi conquered Gwalior.
July to december- Suppression of guerrilla forces
Execution of Tatya tope by British. End of rebellion.
India After 1857 Rebellion
From the 1858 United kingdom started ruling India directly through a community called viceroy of India. British promised that they will treat everyone equally.The last Mughal emperor bahadur shah II sent to rangoon by British and he died there in 1862. In the 1877 queen victoria took the title of Empress of India.
Importance of Independence
This is the exact period when Indians cared about their own rights and injustice about them. due to the Lots of social movements, Indians middle and lower caste started becoming more curious about independence.
The Great leaders like swami Vivekananda, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore and Dadabhai Nauroji inspired people. They taught self-confidence, social awareness and making India free from the domination of British. Lokmanya Tilak was one of the greatest leaders when it comes to leading huge amount of people. British arrested him for his aggression. Lokmanya Tilak declared in the court ” swarajya(independence) is my birthright”. The concept of swarajya highlighted till 1947.
In 1885 ,73 delegates met in Bombay and formed Indian national congress party to fight for justice of Indian people. Earlier Dadabhai Nauroji founded a party named Indian national association. Both of the party merged to form a bigger party. Indian national congress started informing to British rulers about rights of people of India.
Partition of Bengal
In 1905, Lord Curzon who is the governor general of India at that time. He divided Bengal into two parts East Bengal and west Bengal. east Bengal has capital Dhaka and west bengal have capital of Calcutta. By doing this native person become angry and they knew British strategy about ” Divide and Rule”. The famous poet of Bengal named Rabindranath Tagore wrote an inspiring poem against British raj.
Contribution in World war I
nearly 1.3 million Indian soldiers went to many parts of the world such as Africa, Europe and the middle east to flight. many of the rich Indians of that time and princes contributed their money to help the United Kingdom for the world war I. The countless Indian soldiers died in the war. In India due to the heavy loss of world war, I British raj increased the taxation.
In the year 1919 British made a new low named Rowlatt Act. under this law, the government got power to arrest people and keep them in the prisons without any reason. They also got the power of stopping media like newspapers. Indian Leaders called this law as Black Act.
Using this law British will be able to stop any arrestation and their injustices news to spread in India. Its like they have full control over media and media should print only news, which is in benefit of the British raj.
13th April 1919 in Amritsar, about 10000 Indians had gathered to protest against Rowlatt Act. The Evil British General Reginald Dyer ordered his army to fire at civilians without any warning. in the 1650 firing, nearly 379 innocent people killed and wound about 1137. This incident became famous as Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. This event kept India on fire. People in India started to hate British.
Impact Of Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) Became a lawyer in London. In 1893 he went to south Africa. Once he was thrown out of the train in south Africa because he was colored person in the first class seat of train. He begins to fight again this kind of injustice about colored people and made the south African government change their law about colored people.
When he returned to India, under his leadership Indians began to use new ways to get free, because he is having experience of south Africa. Due to the advice and the way of Mahatma gandhi indians started to disobey and break the law of british. This leads jails filled out of Indians. in 26th January 1930 mahatma gandhi did the dandi yatra which is from ahemadabad to dandi . On the coast of Arabian sea at dandi, mahatma gandhi collected the salt. Mahatma gandhi made a salt from sea water and this is a breaking of British law of making salt without paying taxes. Due to this revolutionary event all over India people start breaking British different injustice laws.
Government Of India Act 1935
In 1935 British rulers made act which is named as the government of India act 1935. Under this act there are three major aims such as
To give self-ruling positions to provinces
to give Muslim minority protection by giving them some separate electrolytes.
only Muslims could stand for election in that electrolates.
in the 1937 election took place the members of Indian national congress won in 5 areas and held upper positions in two more areas.
In the second world war, British declared India as a part of a war without discussing with the leaders of India. By doing this Indian peoples and leaders divided in this matter. British wanted to grab Indian forces to fight in world war I , so Indian forces will get tired and they cant able to fight for independence.
Indian National Army(INA)
subhash chandra bose
Now, the two huge movements came in the focus, the first was Indian national army party of Subhash chandra bose and second was Quit India movement of Mahatma Gandhi.
Subhash chandra bose was the leader of Indian national congress twice in 1937 and 1939. There is much difference between the mentality of many leaders and subhash chandra bose. He decided to quit Indian national congress and formed a new party named India forward bloc. Subhash chandra bose was held in the house arrest by British in 1941, but he escaped from there and reached Germany. In Germany, he got the support of Germany and Japan to fight with British in India. He formed Indian national army and returned to India. Indian national army fought with british in north east India.In this huge battle, INA won a lot more than British. Due to the surrender of japan in 1945 INA war has been stopped and due to the plane crash, subhash chandra bose died. The death circumstances of subhash chandra bose are not cleared yet.
British arrested three soldiers INA on the red fort of delhi. one is Hindu , one is sikh and one is muslim. Due to this Indian in all religions got angry. By seeing peoples anger British set them free in public. After the independence of India, Indian government didn’t allow INA soldiers to take a part in Indian army. The Indian government gave them a good amount of pensions and facilities. INA soldiers received a lot of respect from Indian people. Subhash chandra bose is considered one of the biggest patriotic hero of the indian independence movement.
Mahatma Gandhi’s Quit India
on 8thAugust 1942, the leaders of Indian national congress party decided to force British to leave India. Gandhi made a famous slogan “do or die” by this gandhi’s quit India mission caught on fire. Indian leaders offered help to British for second world war, but in exchange for that, they demanded British for total independence. British refused to give independence to Indian national congress.
In the second world war, British empire became very ill in terms of economy, and strength of the army. however, INA of Subhash chandra bose have defeated lots of British territories. During this period mahatma gandhi requested all over Indian people to stop violence. British prisoned nearly 100000 people and leaders and beat them with sticks very badly. Due to the increace in violence British decided to keep gandhi and other Indian national congress leaders in prison. There gandhi refused to eat and requested all over Indian people to stop violence again. This event stopped Indian violence, but the condition of mahatma gandhi was very poor, he started to get ill and weak.
If anything happens to gandhi then people will again start violence and destroy British empire. this thought of British sets gandhi free. Mahatma gandhi continued to oppose British and demanded to free the other leaders too. In early 1946 these leaders freed by British . Now the inspiration and dedication of Indian people became stronger and movements of independence improved.
In late 1946, along with the desires of independence, there was a tension between Hindus and Muslims. Hindu government made them wary of independence hence the mistrust hindu rule. Mahatma gandhi called for unity between hindu and muslims. The muslim League leader Muhammad ali Jinnah arranged direct action day in 1946 August. he had the aim of peacefully, demand for homes in British India. This leads to massive violence also known as Great Calcutta Killings Of August 1946.
This violence spread to Bihar where Muslims attacked by Hindus, Noakhali where Hindus attacked by muslims, Garhmukteshwar where muslims attacked by Hindu and Rawalpindi Where hindus attacked and driven out by muslims. Due to this partition of India and Pakistan happened. pakistan as a majority of muslim country. on the matter of pre-partition of punjab and Bengal riot broke out between sikh, muslims and hindus. The outcome of this made 500000 people dead, this amount is greater than independence fight of India.
This period saw one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern history, with a total of 12 million Hindus, Muslims , and sikhs moving between India and Pakistan.
Due to the heavy loss of strength and wealth and increasing movements and anger in Indian people about British. On 14th of August 1947 Pakistan gained independence and a day later on the 15th August India gained its Independence as well. In 1971 Bangladesh Formerly East Pakistan and east Bengal , seceded from Pakistan.
I am dividing History of India into different posts on the basis of year span, you readers can have structured and well maintain information about the old history of India. so, If you are an Indian then will definitely feel 1 feet up than other countries by reading about Indian cultures and kings.
Indian History Timeline
Old History of India
The meaning of homo erectus is that they are the first human who was standing upright human when their fossils have found, scientist have shocked with the different DNA of man.
Homo erectus is the name came from the Latin language which usually means homo=man erectus= upright.
In the earlier 15th century fossils are found near Africa, but in the 20th century because of the world wars, nearly any of them is safely kept. It was believed that homo erectus came first lived in Asia but later on due to the oldest fossil found in Africa scientist have convinced now that they were firstly lived in Africa.
When they migrated in Asia they found more comfortable nature near Narmada valley
Due to the worlds oldest painting nearly 15000 years ago, found near the Narmada valley called as bhimabetaka painting, proved that homo erectus was living near the Narmada river which is now at Madhya Pradesh. Narmada river is popular in India for their handmade saries which indicates the beauty of Indian woman. It is believed that the culture of saris is invented here. Tools found here are stated nearly between 2 -5 million years ago.
It is stated in the India Pakistan and Nepal. Near Rawal Pindi, many of the edged pebble tools found and near the Himachal Pradesh lots of cleavers and hand axes found.
Bhimbetka rock shelters- Edakka caves painting
Let me first tell you, where is this bhimabetaka rock shelters. It is in the Madhya Pradesh 45 km from Bhopal city
History Of Bhimbetaka
The word bhimbetaka pointing us to the meaning in Hindi “ sitting place of Bhim”. In Hinduism, there is a world huge poem MAHABHARAT which is available now worldwide and in nearly any language, Bhim is one of the 5 Pandava’s and as mentioned in the Mahabharata he is physically strongest Pandav.
well if you need information about BHIM then You can comment below I will provide interesting history about him, and trust me there are lots of things to tell about bhim.
In 1988 British named Kincaid mentioned bhimbetaka in his papers, he got this information from the civilians are staying nearby Bhopal. There are more than 750 rock shelters in that area.
Evidence Of Bhimbetaka in Old History Of India
This painting is called as bhimbetaka painting, some kids are seem to playing and man on a horse with a weapon in his hand can be seen in this painting.
Edakka Cave painting
There are lots of rock art and painting found in main location and scientist have confirmed that the oldest painting is about 30000 years old. Colors used in painting are the juices of vegetable
In One of the paintings here, the handprint of a kid is found.
Vishnu wakarkar found this cave while he is traveling by train, he jumped out of a slow train and targeted edakka cave.
While studying the paintings he found that in the lots of painting horse is denoted with the human, and this thing made one thing clear that “Arab Didn’t bring the horse in India, horses are already from India”.
Vishnu wakarkar is awarded by PADMASHRI from the Indian government.
Ancient Indian Civilization 3300-1500 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization
This civilization is formed between 3300-1700BCE and its one of the oldest and popular of 3 civilization in the world. This civilization developed near the Indus river, probably intention behind this is “easy supply of water”. Mohenjo-Daro,lothal,dholaveera,rakhigadhia, and Harappa are the main center of this civilization.
In the December 2014 bhirdana is decided oldest civilization.as per British scientist it was the most developed civilization so far.In 1921 Dayaram sahani Founded This civilization. This is the first time in the old history of india where bronze is invented and used in most of the daily life. Nearly 1400 centers are dug, among of that 925 centers are in India. A scientist has mentioned that till now only 3% of centers are being dug.
TimeSpan Of Indus Valley Civilization
Evidence of Indus Valley civilization
Indus valley civilization seals
The age of this seals are 2500-1900 BCE. We can see Zebu Bull, Elephant, and Rhinoceros
Interesting facts about Indus valley civilization
It is well developed and firmly constructed civilization of all time. At the main center’s construction is of high quality and in the subcenter due to the common people civilization quality of construction differed.
Kings used to live in a huge fort and other common level civils used to live in bricks home.The most popular place here is Mohenjo-Daro, which seems most developed In Harappa center.
In the Mohenjo-Daro, we found huge water tanks, clothes changing rooms, storage rooms for food and in some places, grains found in the floor gaps that indicates farming in that time.
There is no evidence of any of the king is found till now, but one is quite sure that, the kings here are very clever.
There is much evidence found about 4 headed men, In the Mewar which is near the border of Indus valley, believed that it is the Lord eklingnath (Shiva) who also has 4 heads in lots of their paintings.
The population was nearly 50000 but only 100 graves found and this shows that they used to burn dead bodies.
One Statue is found in Mohenjo-Daro which is now kept in Karachi
In one of the Mohenjo-Daro house, 14 men fossils have found and that is pointing toward the possibility of attacks, epidemic or fire accident.
Beginning Of Vedas 1500-600BCE
In between this period, indo Aryans theory came in front of us. We identify this particular period as a “Vedic culture of India” because at that time in India Vedas are said to be written in the Sanskrit language. Vedas are the oldest text written in India
image of ceramic goblet from navdatoli 1300BCE
ceramic goblet from navdatoli
The oldest part of Veda is Rigveda. After that Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda is written. Each Veda is subclassified as Samhitas(mantras), Aranyakas(text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices, and symbolic-sacrifices), Brahmanas(commentaries on rituals, ceremonies, and sacrifices), and the Upanishads(texts discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge)
In the Vedas, class of the people is described and that believed to have 4 types which are called as varnas
Kshatriyas- warrior, ruler
Bramhins- scholars, teachers
Vaishyas-agriculturalists and merchants.
The Battle of Ten Kings
This battle is mentioned in the Rigveda, and it took place between 1400-1300 BCE. This battle is between puru king (with the sage vishwamitra) and king Sudas (king of Bharata). The mentor of Puru is vishwamitra and mentor of sudas is vashishtha.In this war, King Sudas was won and won the whole area of the south which is later named as BHARAT.
JanaPadas 1200-600 BCE
Main kingdoms of Janapada Era is Kuru,panchala,kosla,videha. This period is also called as iron age because in the Atharva Veda iron is mentioned as “syama ayas” which means black metal.
At that time kuru state is the biggest of all state, so obviously, kings of kuru are the king of that era. There are the two main kings of the kuru parikshit and his son janamejaya.
Fact From Mahabharata
It is being said that in the Mahabharata poet, parikshit is the son of Abhimanyu, Abhimanyu is the son of Subhadra and Arjun, Arjun is the son of king Pandu, Pandu is the son of king vichitravirya, vichitravirya is the son of king Shantanu, Shantanu is the son of king kuru, kuru is the son of hasti, hasti is the son of Bharat.
The Two Epic Poems
Mahabharat and Ramayan are the two poems which mean in Hinduism a lot. Mahabharat is the worlds biggest poem. A scientist has no clue whether this is just a poem or a real old history of india. But the main thing here is “It is the most thrilling story, you have ever read” if you know Mahabharata then you would agree with me.
Ramayan which is another huge poem after Mahabharat but This two poems are interlinked each other, as per written in the Mahabharata, Ramayan is the story of ram which is happened before the Mahabharat. Many experts said that Mahabharat poem is 1000BCE old but due to the time elapsed in-between Mahabharat poem is changed decades by decades.
Age Of Upanishad (800-600BCE)
In this period Sramana movement occurred, Sramana means the saint who is completely dedicated to Jain or Buddhism. Shramana has to follow five Mahavrutas – Sarvaprampam, Sarvmashrishnabad, Sarvadattanan, Sarvamatabhaban and Sarvaparagra Varanan from the mind, mind, and work.
Upanishads are written in this periods, they are said to be the last of Vedas which is called the end of Vedas “vedant”. The meaning of word Upanishad is to seat near the guru and perceive all the knowledge about body and soul.There are 108 Upanishads each of them are based on Vedas.
10 Upanishads are based on Rigveda
19 Upanishads are based on Shukla Yajurveda
32 Upanishads are based on Krishna Yajurveda
16 Upanishads are based on samaveda
31 Upanishads are based on Atharvaveda
With the 500BCE so-called second urbanization started on the Ganga plain.
Evidence of Upnishadas in Old History Of India
Upnishadas Manuscript Original
Rise Of MahajanPada (600-300 BCE)
During 600-300BCE there were 16 powerful kingdoms which are called as MAHAJANPADA.
CHAMPA, BIHAR, INDIA
UJJAIN, MP, INDIA
PATNA, PATNA, BIHAR, INDIA
MATHURA, UP, INDIA
This whole era is strongly impacted by Sravana by Jain and Buddhism. From above-mentioned kingdoms there are lots of kingdoms are mentioned in Mahabharata poem, for example, Karna is the king of Anga kingdom, Shri Krishna is from Mathura, Gandhara and Shakuni is from gandhar, Kauravas are from kuru.
Evidence of Mahajanpada
This is the silver coins of kuru kingdom , which is 300BCE years old
Licchavis The legends
In the 600BCE licchavis is the cast of the people who are known as great warrior and rulers. Licchavi’s ruled the whole century, they used to live at the Vaishali Nagar which is near mujjafur Nagar at Bihar. It is being said that due to the great legend named “Licha” , his family tree is called as lichhavis. They ruled on Nepal, magadh, and Kaushal.
In the old Sanskrit books, licchavi’s are mentioned as Kshatriya which means great warriors and kings. They are against Vedic cast. They are divided into lots of branches. One of them branch vaishalivali is the origin of Mahavir swami who is the god in Jain, and in the Kaushal branch lord, Gautam Buddha is born.
This is the century where there is a huge influence of Gautam Buddha, even lichhavis are also deeply influenced by lord Gautam Buddha. Gautam Buddha associated with these four kingdoms in his life and that are, vatsa, Avanti, and Magadha.
Impact of the Sravana on this era people forced them to form Sravana religion. The life cycle of birth and death is being focused at this time. Gautam Buddha and Mahavira are the two lords who founded their own way to follow the humanity. Yes, they were from the same era.
Evidence of licchavi Kingdom In Old History Of India
This coin is 350CE old , the print of king chandragupta I and queen kumaradevi is mentioned.
Beginning Of Jainism
Mahavira is one of the 24 Tirthankara.
What is Tirthankara?
Tirthankar is a word used for that 24 legends who through their own tenacity and receive enlightenment. In short, those who create a shrine crossing the Sansar, they are called Tirthankaras. Lets study who are the Tirthankara.
Name Of Tirthankar
7.2 million years
6 million years
5 million years
4 million years
3 million years
2 million years
1 million years
8.4 million years
7.2 million years
6 million years
3 million years
1 million years
According to the Jainism, there is no end of time, time walks like carriage pan, our current era has been the first infinite number of time cycles and even after this era there will be an infinite number of cycles in an upcoming era too. At the beginning of the 21st century, we are in the fifth round of the current half cycle of 2530 years approx.
According to the Buddhism, there are 7 Buddhas of antiquity
998th Buddha of Vyuhakalpa
999th Buddha of Vyuhakalpa
1000th Buddha of Vyuhakalpa
1st Buddha of Bhadrakalpa
2nd Buddha of Bhadrakapla
3rd Buddha of Bhadrakalpa
4th Buddha of Bhadrakalpa
Here are the main Things which are mentioned in Buddhism
Gautam Buddha(563-486 BCE) is the former of Buddhism, he is most intelligent and socialist world has ever known.
On the banks of Niranjana river in Prabhala, you in the present day at Bihar in 528, Gautam Buddha became enlightened on the day of Vaisakhi Purnima. This divine knowledge is called as nirvana
Dhammachakra Parivartan – Buddha gave percept to 5 Bramhins at Uttar Pradesh this event is called as Dhammachakra Parivartan.
In 483 BCE at the age of 80, Gautam Buddha Mahaparinirvana took place at Kushinagar, Bihar.
This kingdom was the main focus of Hinduism, and Buddhism history. Two of the greatest empire Maurya and Gupta were originated from here. This period of time is called as the golden period of India because at this time mathematics, philosophy, and astronomy.
The entrance of Persians and Greeks (520-327 BCE)
In 520 BCE Persian king Cyrus the great conquer Indian south part and ruled this area for about 200 years till 327 BCE. At this time Takshashila was the center of Persian rule for Vedic and Iranian studies are mixed with each other.This 200 years of Persian rule ended with Alexander the Great conquered Persia in 327 BCE.
The story of Alexander the great.
In 326 BCE after defeating Persia, he came towards India and had huge war with the king porus. this battle is known as the battle of hydaspes. At that time there was a king named ambhi who was the opponent of king porus. When ambhi realized about alexander’s attack, he surrendered to Alexander
Alexander gifted him, 200 silver coins, 3000 bulls, 10000 sheep and 30 elephants. Ambhi played fare game while surrendering to Alexander and indirectly he made the battle between Alexander and Porus.
Porus decides to attack Alexander and there is nobody to help porus, all of the kings were surrendered to Alexander. Due to the heavy pride porus decides to fight till the end. He reached the hydaspes(zelum river). Alexander’s army was shocked by seeing porus army formation, it was nearly impossible to drill rock solid army formation filled with horses elephants and an army of Porus.
Hydaspes river had a huge flood at 326 BCE due to that porus and Alexander army was in front of each other but didn’t touch each other until months. One night when the heavy rain occurred, alexander commander’s found a small bridge to cross the river, nearly 11000 armies crossed a river and attacked porus army in the night. When porus alarmed about this he sent his son with 2000 army to attack Alexander army but his son died on the field. Porus was still unbreakable he continues the war and unfortunately caught by Alexander commanders. Alexander asked Porus ” how should I behave with you” then porus replied “like a king behaves with a king”, Alexander loved his answer and gave his kingdom back to porus.
After this Alexander turned to attack Magadha who’s king is Nanda empire. Due to the tired army of Alexander and by seeing the amount of potential of Nanda empire Alexander decides to return from India.
Evidence Of porus and alexxander the great war In Old History Of India
porus and alexander coin
this coin is 322 BCE old . on this coin alexander the great is attacking king porus in indian subcontinent. This coin is known as victory coin.
Maurya empire(322-185 BCE)
This is the empire of India which nearly covers complete India. so, if u heard about Maurya empire, then you must have heard about Chandragupta Maurya and Chanakya (Kautilya). We will discuss here their interesting story, how the Chanakya removed Nanda dynasty without using any of the physical weapons.
Revenge Of Chanakya
Chanakya is the son of a teacher chanak who is living in a patliputra. Due to criticization on Nand dynasty, he got imprisoned by king nand and chanak is died imprisoned. Chanakya in young age moved to takshashila. There on chanakya did the deep study on politics and economics. Chanakya becomes one of the experts of that time in politics. He started teaching and his one of the student is Chandragupta maurya. Chanakya only had one dream in his mind ie. To remove nanda dynasty.
Alexander vs Chanakya.
When Alexander was planning to attack India then Chanakya suggested king ambhi to a reunion with porus and fight with Alexander, but porus was defeated by Alexander and he is now marching towards the Magadha. chanakya was very cured about Magadha and he went to king nand to consult about Alexander attacks, but instead of this, nand insulted chanakya hence the moto of the destruction of nand dynasty is being confirmed by Chanakya.
He motivated his students about greeks and king Nand . after some years his students attacked greek small centers and destroyed them slowly. In all of this, the intelligence and skills of Chandragupta Maurya shined like a crystal. yet, Chanakya ordered Chandragupta to attack greek centers but leave Indian soldiers, while doing this greeks lost their trust on their Indian soldiers and Indian soldiers are mixed in the Chandragupta army. After destroying greeks Chanakya told Chandragupta to attack ambhi, thus ambhi was the opponent of porus, porus started supporting Chandragupta. Chandragupta has a huge force now and support of porus, using all of his strength he attacked Magadha and ended nand dynasty. This is how Chandragupta formed a Maurya empire.
Bindusara who is the son of Chandragupta succeeded Maurya empire from 297-272 BCE. After the death of Bindusara his son, Ashoka succeeded Maurya empire. He ruled for 37 years until his death at 232BCE. In the battle against Kalinga, he destroyed kallinga. Due to the loss of life of huge amount of soldiers Ashoka felt embarrassed and he started following Buddhism.
Maurya Empire King
Brihadratha is killed by his commander pushyamitra shunga while, at the army parade. Brihadratha is the weak ruler and pushyamitra took good advantage of it and formed shunga empire.
Maurya empire was the great empire especially Chandragupta and Ashoka. It is being said that Ashoka formed a secret community of expert people in a particular field.
Evidence of Chandragupta Maurya In old History Of India
chandragupta maurya coin
it is the coin of kin bindusara maurya during the period of 297BCE.It is the pure silver coin its weight is 3.4 gram
छत्रपती शाहू महाराज, जो छत्रापति सम्भाजी महाराज के बेटे थे। जब छत्रापति शाहू महाराज के बारे में हमने कुछ जानकारी हासिल की तो हमने कुछ चौक देने वाला इतिहास पढ़ा, जिससे हमारे दिलमें मराठा साम्राज्य के बारेमे और इज्जत बढ़ी। 18 मई 1682 में शाहू महाराज का जनम रायगढ़ पे हुआ।
छत्रापति सम्भाजी महाराज की हत्या 11 मार्च 1689 में हुई, उसके बाद मराठाओ के संकट को मिटाना है तो रायगढ़ किले को पहले हराना होगा ये औरंगजेब की सोच थी। औरंगजेब ने जुल्फिकार खान को रायगढ़ किला हासिल करने के लिए भेजा, मराठाओ ऐसे हालात में भी हार नह मानी।
रायगढ़ में एक एक मराठा मावळा अपने स्वराज्य के लिए आखरी सांस तक लड़ रहा था इन हालातों का डटकर जिन्होंने सामना किया वो थी येसुबाई साहेब, जो अपने पति छत्रापति सम्भाजी महाराज के मृत्यु के बाद भी हौसला न हारी।
रायगढ़ किले को जुल्फिकार खान हासिल करने वाला ही था। तब रानी येसुबाई साहब ने राजाराम महाराज को जिंजी भेजने की तैयारी की, रानी येसुबाई को ये मालूम था, कि अगर औरंगजेब के हाथ मे दूसरा शिवजी यानिकि शाहू लगा तो शायद वो जिंदा नही बचेंगे। क्योंकि शाहू केवल 7 साल के थे, इसीलिये उन्होंने राजाराम महाराज को जिंजी जा कर स्वराज्य संभालने कहा, इससे ये बात सामने आती है कि महारानी येसुबाई ने अपने बेटे से भी ज्यादा स्वराज्य के बारेमे सोचा, और यही बात है जो दुनिया के इतिहास में मराठाओ को औरो से अलग करती है।
3 नवंबर 1689 को मुघलो ने रायगढ़ किला हासिल कर लिया, मतलब मुघलो को किला हासिल करने में 8 महीने लगे।
औरंगजेब की कैद में होते हुए भी राजाराम महाराज को रानी येसुबाई और शाहू की खबर रहेगी ये काम भक्तजी हुजरे के पास था। रानी येसुबाई ने शाहू महाराज की अच्छेसे परवरिश की, शाहू महाराज ने इतनी कम उम्र में ही औरंगजेब के दिल जीत लिया था, औरंगजेब ने ही उनका नाम दूसरा शिवजी हटाकर शाहू रख दिया।
औरंगजेब ने शाहू महाराज को अक्कलकोट, इंदापुर सुपे, बारामती और नेवासे का जहाँगीर बनाया उनको 7000 की सेना दी और रानी एसुबाई को उनके नाम की मोहर दी जिसमे पारसी में कुछ ऐसा लिखा था, “येसूबाई इ वालिदा शाहू राजा सन अहद”। इसका मतलब है शाह राजा की माँ एसुबाई साल पहला।
9 मई 1703 की बात है, औरंगजेब ने शाहू महाराज को मुसलमान बनाने कहा , इस बात को शाहू महाराज ने मना किया, रानी येसु बाई ने बेगम की मदत से औरंगजेब को मनाने की कोशिश की तो औरंगजेब ने शाहू महाराज की बजह कोई 2 मराठा को मुसलमान बनाने की जिद की।
खण्डेराव गुजर और जगजीवन गुजर इन दो भाइयोने आगे आकर शाहू महाराज की रक्षा की, 16 मई 1703 को मोहर्रम के मौके पर गुजर भाइयो को धर्मान्तर किया गया और उनका नाम अब्दुर्रहीम और अब्दुर्रहमान रखा गया। शाहू महाराज छत्रापति होने के बाद उन्होंने उनको सातारा का सालगाव इनाम दिया, आज भी उनके वंशज सातारा के परली गांव में रहते है। खण्डेराव और जगजीवन गुजर छत्रापति शिवजी महाराज के सेनापति प्रतापराव गुजर के बेटे थे।
औरंगजेब ने कभीभी शाहु महाराज और रानी येसुबाई का कड़ा कम नही किया। छत्रपति शाहू और येसुबाई 1689 से 1707 तक औरंगजेब की कैद में रहे, 1707 में औरंगजेब की मृत्यु के बाद उनके बेटे आज़म मुग़ल गद्दी पे बैठे।औरंगजेब की बेटी ज़िनतुनिस्सा और जुल्फिकार खान की सलाह से आज़म ने शाहू महाराज को कैद से मुक्त कर दिया, क्योंकि मराठा साम्राज्य में कलह हो सके।
ऐसा कहा जाता है कोल्हापुर भोसले घराने के परसोजी भोसले ने शाहू महाराज के साथ एक ही थाली में खाना खाया, जिससे शाहू महाराज तोतया नही ये बात स्वराज्य में आज जैसी फैल गयी और शाहू महाराज का स्वागत बड़ेही प्यार से हुआ।
12 अक्टूबर 1707 में शाहू महाराज धनाजी जाधव जैसा वीर योद्धा जिसने मुघलो के छक्के छुड़ा दिए थे, वो शाहू महाराज के साथ आ गए, महारानी ताराबाई अपने बेटे शिवाजी को लेके पन्हाला किले पे आ गयी। 12 जनवरी 1708 में शाहू महाराज छत्रपति शाहू महाराज बन गए, उनका राज्याभिषेक हुआ।
1719 मराठा और मुघलो में बोहोत ही महत्वपूर्ण समजोता हुआ , ये इस प्रकार था।
1.छत्रापति शिवजी महाराज के सब किले शाहू महाराज के पास आएंगे।
2. 1719 तक मराठाओ ने जीते हुए खानदेश, गोण्डवन,वरहाड,हैदराबाद और कर्नाटक भी स्वराज्य में शामिल हो जाएंगे।
3.मुघलो के कुछ इलाकों में चौथाई और सरदेशमुखी मराठा वसूल करेंगे और मुग़ल बादशाह की निगरानी के लिए 15000 फ़ौज तैनात करेंगे
4. मराठा मुघलो को हर साल 15 लाख होण देंगे।
5. रानी येसुबाई को मुघलो की कैद से मुक्त किया जाए।
बालाजी विश्वनाथ की मृत्यु के बाद छत्रापति शाहू ने बाजीराव पेशवे को अगला पेशवा बनाया, पराक्रमी बाजीराव पेशवा के प्रति बोहोत लगाव था। छत्रापति शाहू महाराज ने कहा था कि एक तरफ 10 लाख फौज और एक तरफ बाजीराव , तो में बाजीराव को चुनूँगा। बाजीराव पेशवा की मदत से छत्रपति शाहू महाराज ने पूरे भारतभर में मराठाओ का डंका फैलाया। बाजीराव पेशवा और मस्तानी के बारेमे जब शाहू महाराज को समझा तब उन्होंने चिमाजी अप्पा को खत लिखकर कहा कि, बाजीराव को कोई भी परेशानी होनी नही चाहिये, ये खत आज भी मौजुत है।
छत्रापति शाहू महाराज ने 42 साल मराठा साम्राज्य को संभाला उनकी मृत्यु 15 दिसंबर 1749 में हुई।
जाधव, शिंदे, होळकर, आंग्रे, दाभाड़े, पवार और घोरपड़े इन सब घरानों को पेशवाओ के साथ छत्रापति शाहू ने संभाला। छत्रपति शाहू महाराज बोहोतही निपुण लीडर थे जिन्होंने अपने रिश्तेदारों को, अपनी सेना को और अपने स्वराज्य को अच्छेसे बांध के रखा और स्वराज्य को फैलाया।
पराक्रमी पेशवाओ की वजह से शायद बोहोत से इतिहासकार छत्रापति शाहू महाराज के असमान्य इतिहास को उजागर करना भूल गए है।
हम तहे दिल से नमन करते है छत्रापति शाहू महाराज को जिन्होंने स्वराज्य को बढ़ाया और उसकी रक्षा की।